What are the four main ideas of Stoicism?
These were known as 'Cardinal Virtues', that its leaders believed could lead to a better, happier and more fulfilling life. The four virtues of Stoicism were: wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice.
They are the principles that students should seek to practice if they are to exemplify the character of a Stoic. The virtues are thought to be derived from the teachings of the Greek philosopher Plato, who defined the same four principles in his Republic (Book IV, 426–435).
The four virtues of Stoicism are wisdom, justice, courage and temperance. Temperance is subdivided into self-control, discipline and modesty.
The Stoics provided a unified account of the world, constructed from ideals of logic, monistic physics, and naturalistic ethics. Of these, they emphasized ethics as the main focus of human knowledge, though their logical theories were of more interest for later philosophers.
The cardinal virtues are four virtues of mind and character in both classical philosophy and Christian theology. They are prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.
The Stoic Mindset
In some sense, Stoicism is a mindset based on a set of observations about how the mind (and world) works. The Stoics argued that: Your thoughts and beliefs create the world you inhabit, not external circumstances, so you ought to take responsibility for your mind.
Stoicism originated as a Hellenistic philosophy, founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium (modern day Cyprus), c. 300 B.C.E. It was influenced by Socrates and the Cynics, and it engaged in vigorous debates with the Skeptics, the Academics, and the Epicureans.
Of the Four Stoic Virtues, Marcus Aurelius said justice was the most important.
“It is the power of the mind to be unconquerable.” The ultimate goal of Stoicism is to develop the mind to such an extent that the practitioner would reach a state of being called eudaimonia.
making a speech in praise of Love, he organizes his ideas around the four cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.
What does the 4th virtue mean?
Temperance: The Fourth Cardinal Virtue
Temperance is the virtue that attempts to keep us from excess, and, as such, requires the balancing of legitimate goods against our inordinate desire for them.
Foremost among the moral virtues stand four key virtues, the cardinal virtues, the cornerstone of Aristotle's moral framework: prudence, justice, temperance, and courage. According to Aristotle, possessing these virtues makes a person good, happy, and flourishing.
Virtue in the Stoics is about excellence and reaching one's destined potential. To this end, four qualities stand out: wisdom, justice, courage and discipline. All of these are always sifted by reason, which would lead one to seek wisdom, act justly, employ courage and nurture discipline.
First principles thinking is incorporated within the Four Cardinal Virtuous of Stoic philosophy specifically within Prudence (Practical Wisdom), Justice (Morality), and Temperance (Moderation). Think of what occurs when we experience an external thing.
Though the number of inner-worldly, or moral, virtues is rather large, the four “cardinal” virtues (prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance) have long been posited in the Western tradition as encapsulating the virtuous life in this world.
The four cardinal virtues are prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.
Stoicism. definition: an ethical philosophy aimed at securing a meaningful life while avoiding unhappiness (is it a LOGICAL conclusion) -comes from the philosophy of extreme anti-hedonists (against arguments that Good=Pleasure) -supports the elimination of risk from the pursuit of good and happy life.
Contained within this virtue are things like orderliness, propriety, modesty, and self- mastery. [*]Justice (dikaiosune) is the knowledge of apportioning each person and situation what is due. Under this banner Stoics placed piety (giving gods their due), kindness, good fellowship, and fair dealing.
- 1) You'll care less what people think.
- 2) You'll waste less time.
- 3) You'll remember what's in your control.
- 4) You'll stop being so distracted.
- 5) You'll stop being so anxious.
- 6) You'll be more grateful.
The four virtues, or four noble qualities of the Buddha's life—eternity, happiness, true self, and purity—refer to the supreme state we can attain as human beings, a state of absolute freedom and happiness.
What are the 3 most important virtues?
Faith, Hope, and Charity: the Three Theological Virtues.
The Four Cardinal Principles and Eight Virtues are a set of Legalist (and later Confucian) foundational principles of morality. The Four Cardinal Principles are propriety (禮), righteousness (義), integrity (廉), and shame (恥).
Gnome (good sense) – passing judgment, "sympathetic understanding" Synesis (understanding) – comprehending what others say, does not issue commands. Phronesis (practical wisdom) – knowledge of what to do, knowledge of changing truths, issues commands. Techne (art, craftsmanship)
In Christian tradition, the seven heavenly virtues combine the four cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude with the three theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity.
Since its revival in the twentieth century, virtue ethics has been developed in three main directions: Eudaimonism, agent-based theories, and the ethics of care.